AgriQuora . 19th Jul, 2021,
If there is one thing that concerns a farmer most, it is animal health. Healthy cows produce optimally and justify the hefty investment associated with dairy farming. Diagnosing animal diseases becomes a key component of farm management.
In this article, we are going to look at some of the very common diseases at the farm, how to diagnose and manage them for better performance at the farm.
First, we should define some of the important terms we are going to be using throughout this post.
Definition of important terms
Zoonotic disease: – disease that can be transmitted between man and animal.
Food-borne disease: – disease that is transmitted through food. It is a public health concern.
Health: – a state of freedom from any disease or abnormality.
Disease: – Any deviation from a healthy condition. Usually manifested as an inability to perform physiological function at normal levels even when nutritional and environmental requirements are adequate.
WARNING! Always consult a professional if you are unsure of what you are doing.
When diagnosing a disease, you can do it on an individual animal or collectively on a herd/flock.
There are several ways this can be done. We will look at three approaches that are commonly used.
Here, you check for the general appearance of the animal. For instance;
Check close parameters that usually have immediate impact when the animal is unwell. For instance;
Clinical examinations are more advanced hence require expertise. Before you start the process, ensure that you retrain the animal properly to avoid injuries. You should also have the personal protective gear suitable for the job.
The aspects of interest in clinical examination include:
History is critical because it gives a clue as to what disease is suspected. It should be precise and accurate, preferably recorded.
What to consider when gathering an animal’s health history:
Both internal and external environmental factors have a significant impact on the health of the animal.
Outdoor environmental factors include topography, soil type (affects mineral balance) stocking rate (may induce cannibalism), type of pastures (some plants may cause poisoning), etc.
Internal environmental factors include the type of housing, level of sanitation, lighting, ventilation, etc.
Conduct a general inspection of the general appearance of the animal before you know where to settle on.
Do a detailed close examination of the animal while making sure not to upset the animal in any way.
Unsettled animal may not reveal the true conditions because the pulse (or even the body temperature) will increase.
We have seen the many ways you can use to conduct animal health diagnosis. We will now see how to approach a sick animal for examination.
The head is a very important region in an animal. You can use it to check for the animal’s demeanor and facial expression (fright or excitation).
You can also check the head for symmetry and configuration of the mandibles. Use this to check how the animal carries its head.
In the head, you can check if the animal has protruded eyes, which can indicate a problem with the nervous system. Check for spasms, excessive blinking, lacrimation (tear production), etc.
Check the nostrils for excessive discharge of mucus or excessive dilation.
Observe the mucus membranes in the mouth for colour change, erosion of the gums, and salivation.
Check the jugular vein if it is glandular or smooth. Observe its pulse and check if there is any sign of fluid accumulation, which may show a problem with the circulatory system.
Check the size and variations of the lymph nodes. Irregular variation could indicate that the animal is suffering from goiter.
Check the ribcage and observe the rate, strength, and intensity of respiration.
Check the size, alignment/symmetry, and any distention in the abdominal region. Such protrusions may indicate presence of gas/fluid accumulation or tumor.
You should give the udder special attention. Check for symmetry, irregular nodules/swellings, wounds, and dirt. Strip the teat and check the secretions for mastitis.
Check the vulva and the mucus membranes for any deviation in color. Palpate these regions (including the testicles) for any irregular swellings/tumors.
Check discharges from these regions for any abnormality.
Check the animal’s posture and gait. Check for swellings or wounds on the skin.
Check the nose and the ribcage for any abnormality we have discussed in prior.
Start from the mouth and go through the animal in the abdomen, the stomachs, the rectum and the external genitalia.
Here, check the mucus membranes for their colour, the jugular vein for pulse, and the lateral sternum on the left side of the animal to feel the heartbeat.
Skin is the largest organ of the body and the barrier between internal organs and the external environment. Check for wounds, swellings, pests, alopecia, etc.
Check the animal’s conformation and posture. Check for broken limbs as well. Ensure the hooves are well trimmed.
Tentative diagnosis is one that will lead you to identifying the specific problem with your animal. After carrying out the general diagnoses we have covered so far, you can complement them with the following techniques to isolate the case:
Involves direct feeling with the hands/fingers for the size of a swelling, consistency (whether soft or hard), and sensitivity (to pain and temperature).
Strike the body surface to set the deep parts into vibration. These vibrations will emit audible sound, which you can use to tell if the animal is sick or not.
This technique combines both palpation and percussion. It is a useful technique for diagnosing pregnancy in small animals.
Involves listening to sounds produced by the organs. You can listen directly by placing your ear above the surface or by use of a stethoscope.
Set the organs in motion and listen to the sounds they produce.
The health of the animal affects its temperature. Temperature could be normal, high, or low. These deviations could be defines as follows:
Determines the heartbeat rate of the animal. For large animals, you can detect this at the mid-coccidial artery (in the tail end). Use fumeral artery for small animals. You may notice the following from this examination:
Tachycardia - marked increase in pulse rate e.g. during septicaemia or toxaemia. It could also happen during circulatory failure, extreme pain or excitement.
Bradycardia – marked decrease in pulse rate, which occurs mainly on space-occupying lesions in the brain or diaphragm.
Useful for pregnancy diagnosis and deformities in organs.
You can listen to abdominal movements in animals with digestive problems.
Take samples for lab examination. Ensure you follow the good sampling practices.
The samples include:
Use a dry sterile needle and syringe to collect the blood sample. If you are looking for large samples, use the jugular vein to draw the sample.
You can also use coccidial veins or the veins on the tip of the ears to draw samples.
Types of blood samples used for lab analysis
Use a clean and sterile universal bottle to collect the sample. You can use the urine for urinalysis, sugar content, and culture for microbiological analysis.
You can use the faeces for identifying worm infections and for cultural isolation to identify bacterial infections.
Pick a prescapular or parotid lymph node biopsy in a clean dry bottle. You can use the sample for smears and bacterial isolation.
Scape deep into the skin using a clean scalpel and collect in a clean container for ecto-parasite and fungal analysis.
Could be milk or pus. Collect in a clean sampling bottle for chemical or biological analysis.
Take a section of the organ to check for abnormalities like tumors.
You can also collect samples from the feeds, organs, chemicals, plants, content of the stomach, etc.
Specific manifestations of a disease will lead to differential diagnosis to eliminate diseases showing different pathognomonic signs (i.e. signs that cannot be mistaken for any other disease).
Basically, there are three causes of diseases, namely:
They are either extrinsic or intrinsic factors. They include feeding, housing, hygiene, milking techniques, stress, as well as hereditary factors.
These result from physical injuries, chemicals and irradiation.
Primary invaders of the body attacks the host and causes diseases. Secondary invaders cause opportunistic infections while a viral infection becomes a predisposing factor for other opportunistic infections.
Inapparent infection happens when the cause of the disease is not manifested in the body. It is also known as sub-clinical or latent infection and the host is a carrier.
There are different types of disease carriers, e.g.
Involves movement of disease causing microorganism from one (sick) animal to the next.
Methods of disease transmission
Diseases that spread through contact are contagious. They can spread through direct contact (e.g. anthrax) or indirect contact when an infectious material gets on an auxiliary body such as feeds or posts then another animal picks it up (e.g. Salmonellosis and Colibacillosis).
Mechanical vector transmission - vector parasites like flies and ticks carry the disease from one animal to the other.
Biological vector transmission- some part of the disease-causing microorganism’s life cycle is completed in the vector.
Intermediate hosts – the vector parasite needs another host to complete the transmission e.g. Fascioliasis caused by liver flukes needs snails as an intermediate host.
Equipment with sharp or piercing edges used for vaccination and intravenous transfusion. Anthrax spreads through this method quite easily.
Vectors may also transmit diseases mechanically and is very common with viral infections.
Usually done for academic and research purposes. The inoculum form one animal is introduced into the other animal to check its effects.
The animal ingests the host through the mouth while feeding or drinking.
The animal inhales the airborne vectors. This is common in anthrax, spore producing bacteria, and fungi.
Infectious materials get into the animal through contact with the mucus membrane. Viruses are very notorious for this.
An infectious agent is introduced into the body via a puncture on the skin. The agents get into the animal through the puncture.
This is the route introduced during medical operations like surgery, dehorning, castration. If the process is not aseptic then the disease takes advantage of it. (See definition of iatrogenic transmission here).
Prophylactic drugs may also cause infection if they are already contaminated before administration.
Common route for STDs in animals. Common in herds with natural breeding systems.
Maintenance of an infection is done for the purpose of propagating the infectious agent. It is achieved through two major processes namely:
Parasitic – they multiply and affect the animal e.g. ticks.
Symbiotic – agent gets into the animal and coexist peacefully with the animal e.g. microflora in the rumen.
Commensalism – neither symbiotic nor parasitic. Either one is benefiting or not. None is harmful but depending on the conditions, they can become symbiotic or parasitic.
They exit one host to another one before they are eradicated. Transmission can either be:
Horizontal – from one host to another
Vertical - spread from parent to the offspring through the placenta or spermatozoa of the male.
In some cases, the agent cannot exit from their host into another. The host is referred to as a Dead End Host. This breaks the maintenance of the host e.g. Rabbies in cattle.
A strong host prevents disease than a weak one.
Include the following:
Pathogenicity of the agent – ability of a microorganism to cause a disease.
Virulence – degree of pathogenicity of the microorganism.
These factors are influenced by the immunity of the host.
The body has two lines of defense mechanisms namely:
Intact skin bars all microorganisms from the inner organs. There are a number of fatty acids on the skin that inactivates a number of microorganisms.
Sweat and other skin secretions have chemicals that do not allow multiplication of microorganisms.
Any disease-causing agent needs a break on the surface of the skin to gain entry to the organs under the skin.
Normal desquamation sheds off the microorganisms from the skin. Other secretions such as pus also dislodge microorganisms from the host.
Contains cilia that trap big particles e.g. dust. The host then sneezes them out with the microorganism.
Goblet cells in the respiratory tract also produces mucus that trap microorganisms that are released through coughing.
Muco-cilliary actions - (cilia in the lower respiratory tract move the mucus upward when the animal lies down and coughs the mucus out. This process is called the escalator.
Macrophages - big cells at the terminal edges of the lungs, which engulf foreign materials and the phagocytize them.
Failure of these actions will lead to infection of the host due to weakening of the immune system.
Infection can also occur when the microorganism develops a special receptor site that they use to attach themselves on the cells.
The mouth produces saliva in large amounts, which dilutes whatever gets through the mouth. The saliva contains lysozyme, which deters microbial growth.
The GIT has an acidic pH, which is not conducive to microbial growth.
Mucus traps the disease-causing microorganism.
Peristalsis makes it hard for any organism to attach, penetrate, and cause diseases.
Most organisms in the GIT majorly exit the body through the faeces and mouth secretions.
Urine is sterile and keeps flushing and diluting the microorganisms. The anatomy of the urinary tract is long making it hard for the microorganism to reach the inner organs for the males.
The female system is shorter and more exposed making it easy for the microorganisms to access and cause infection. It has a pH of 5.0, which is acidic hence deters growth of microorganisms.
The udder hormone (oestrogen) also suppresses microbial growth.
STDs are introduced through coitus. They are expelled through urine (e.g. leptospirosis) and genital secretions.
The eye has tear gland, which produces tears that wash the conjunctiva. The tears also contain enzymes that digest microbes. It also has eyelids that sweep the eye membrane periodically and involuntarily to keep the eye safe and clean.
Sometimes, microbes in the blood get to the eyes and cause infection on the eye membrane (systemic infection).
Immunity is the lack of susceptibility to infection or disease on the part of the host. Immunity can be either natural or acquired.
The host is naturally immune to a particular disease or infection (e.g. zebu have naturally high immunity to anthrax).
Natural immunity can be specific to an individual or a particular species.
It may also be influenced by other factors such as age, heredity, nutrition, and environment.
Can be divided into two types:
Involves the cells themselves and is more important in humans than in animals.
Once the body is under attack, the cells undergo alterations and acquire phagocytic ability.
Can be either active or passive.
i. Active acquired humoral immunity
An animal can acquire this type of immunity through recovery from a disease as a result of antigen-antibody reactions. Creation of antibodies prevents the animal from getting this disease.
It can also be acquired through vaccination. An attenuated/less-virulent form of the agent is introduced into the target animal to reduce virulence when the real diseases agent attacks the body.
After the introduction of the agent through vaccination, traces remain in the system and continue to produce the antibodies in the system of the host. This is termed as pre-immunity.
In other cases, the agent of the disease-causing microorganism is completely wiped off the system after complete recovery. This is termed as sterile immunity.
ii. Passive acquired humoral immunity
This is the immunity that is passively passed from one animal to the next. It is usually short term (3 -6 months) when compared to active immunity, which can be lifelong.
Disease control is done with the major aim of ensuring that the animals are healthy so that they can produce and reproduce.
Different governments have measures in place to ensure that animal diseases are controlled to manageable levels.
General disease control measures:
To prevent occurrence, there should be early detection, diagnosis, and treatment for the diseases e.g. mastitis and helminthiasis. They should be frequently checked.
Infer immunity to all animals by ensuring that:
Ensure the infection is contained to prevent spreading through the herd. You can achieve this by:
Ensure there is minimal contact with the animals and animal products
Maintain high standards of hygiene.
Destruction is a control method that eliminates the host and the microbe. It has been used to control foot and mouth disease.
Public awareness through mass education is particularly important in containing foodborne and zoonotic diseases.
Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted between humans and animals. They can be transmitted by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. Bacteria are chiefly responsible for propagating bacterial zoonoses.
Some of them can cause serious diseases in people while others will not show any symptom. Since zoonotic diseases amount to over 200, diagnosis is important to identify the specific disease to ensure administration of correct treatment.
Some affect man and animals and can cause severe disease, even death e.g. anthrax
Others have little effect in animals but cause severe effects in man e.g. Q-fever and brucellosis
Others can cause severe disease in animals but almost invisible effects in man e.g. Newcastle and FMD
Transmission majorly occurs during the clinical stage of the disease. The risk increases when the host animal is a career i.e. does not show symptoms.
Everybody is at risk of contracting zoonotic diseases. However, those who directly deal with animals and animal products are at an increased risk.
Other people who come into contact with materials that are easily contaminated by the animal products such as soil and water also have a higher risk of infections.
Farmers, anglers, sewage treatment workers, and veterinary officers must take extra care and use the personal protective gear while executing their duties.
We classify zoonotic diseases according to the degree of host specificity. They include:
Arthropozoonosis – diseases transmitted from animals to man.
Zooarthropozoonosis – transmitted from man to animals.
Ampixenosis – transmitted either way (from man to animals and vice versa).
These are transmissions perpetrated from one host to the other by either direct or indirect contact. These include diseases/infections like rabies.
These diseases require an intermediate vertebrate host between man and animals e.g. taeniasis
These diseases require an intermediate invertebrate host so that they become transmitters e.g. yellow fever and rift valley fever
Part of the developmental cycle of the disease-causing agent require inanimate reservoir to complete the metamorphosis e.g. hystaplasmosis and most fungal infections.
Here, there are either bacterial or viral zoonoses.
Bacterial zoonoses are as a result of a bacterial infection while viruses cause viral zoonoses.
These are zoonoses attributed to bacteria. They include:
Anthrax is a very critical infection that cause severe effects in both man and animals. It progresses rapidly and often leads to deaths of the victims.
The bacterium Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent. It is a gram positive, non-motile, and spore forming bacterium.
Soprulation occurs upon exposure of infected material to air. It is the bacteria’s form of defensive mechanism to avoid death. The spores are resistant to heightened salting, extremes of temperature and most disinfectants.
In the presence of organic matter, the bacteria get into the material or undrained alkaline soils. They thrive in warm climates for up to 60 years. Acidic soils reduce survival rates of the spores.
Anthrax affects all domestic animals as well as some wild animals. Ruminants are most susceptible, followed by the equine species.
The porcine (pigs) species are the least affected.
When outbreaks occur, they are usually associated with soil borne infection after a major climatic change such as a heavy downpour after a prolonged drought.
Since the bacteria sporulate when exposed to air, it is advisable to never open up a carcass. Putrefaction usually destroys the bacteria.
However, there is still some level of risk, which the animals grazing in the fields assume.
Transmission occurs through many routes including:
Animals directly pick the spores from the mentioned sources. Water contamination is very common especially from the tannery effluent and contamination with infected carcass.
Though a minor route, the animals can still get anthrax by inhaling spores in dusty air.
Needles used for treating animals can be a major route of transmission if it is used on multiple animals. Vectors can also transmit the disease through bite marks on the skin.
Clinical signs can be described in two forms:
Observable symptoms include:
Never perform post-mortem on the carcass.
You will know it is anthrax when the carcass exudes tarry blood and it lacks rigor mortis.
There is a rapid decomposition taking place in the carcass and the abdomen swells as a result. However, the limbs remain flaccid, i.e. “saw horse”.
If by any chance the carcass is opened up, you will observe echmotic haemorrhage and gross enlargement of the liver and the spleen (may double their usual sizes).
Humans also get affected through the same three routes. They include:
When infection occurs through skin penetration, the victim will get cutaneous anthrax. It is usually a professional hazard.
Lesions occur within two to three days after contact. You will first observe pimples (pastules) that collect fluid and becomes a vesicle surrounded by a zone of hyperaemia (reddening). The fluids will change into a bloody substance, which bursts to form blisters.
With progression, the area becomes blue-black and can easily peel off. You may also notice some fever and other general symptoms of disease.
People can easily recover from this form with or without treatment provided the bacteria does not get into the circulatory system.
Results into pneumonic or pulmonary anthrax.
It is common for people who work in dusty environment, especially in the wool industry. This is the reason it is called “wool sorters’ disease”.
It results into a typical pneumonia. The victim shows the rapid onset of disease, high fever, dyspnea, and chest pains.
Bacteria in the blood travel to the heart and causes cardiac failure.
Bio-terrorists have used anthrax in the past in different parts of the world.
Causes intestinal anthrax.
It occurs after consumption of meat from infected animals. Signs include:
Diagnosis is done the same way as in animals. To confirm the bacteria, isolate and identify it (gram positive and non-motile). You can also do cultural isolation of the bacteria.
This is a very important disease in both man and animals because it affects all animal species and all the corresponding bacteria will cause disease in humans.
It is one of the easiest diseases to detect because it causes abortion in all affected pregnant females. In bovine, Brucellla abortus is the causative organism. They are gram-negative coco-bacilli bacteria.
It is a fairly sensitive bacterium that will be eliminated by ordinary environmental conditions such as sunlight and heat.
The bacteria can survive in the aborted material for long periods if kept under refrigeration.
The disease has a global presence and majorly affects adult pregnant females. However, it is not limited to these potential victims alone.
The bacteria will be shed in milk, vaginal and uterine discharges, and in aborted material. The bacteria are also present in the semen of infected males.
Transmission occurs through the following routes:
When animals drop their aborted material on the pastures, they cause contamination and become a risk to the rest of the herd that uses the same pastures for feeding. Calves are contaminated through the milk as well.
The bacteria from the male get into the female through the semen.
Artificial insemination can lead to transmission if contaminated equipment / semen are used. This route of transmission can be very catastrophic if undetected early enough.
It will move from the mucus membrane of the genital system and move into uterus via the circulatory system. In the uterus, the bacteria attack the endometrial cells and begin to multiply.
Once they have reached the attacking threshold, they move into the foetus through the umbilical cord. The effect on the endometrial cells will be so severe that the foetus will not be able to survive.
The bacteria will also lodge in other areas like the mammary glands leading to chronic mastitis. It can also get into the lymphatic system and cause inflammation of the lymph vessels.
In males, the bacteria will majorly affect the testis. The epididymis will be inflamed leading to blockage and such a male will be rendered infertile.
Tentative diagnosis is based on the clinical signs
Bacterial isolation can also work. Take samples from any part of the animal e.g. vaginal swabs, or semen. The most commonly used sample is the foetal material after abortion.
Treatment is usually not necessary in animals due to self-cure. However, you should control the disease to prevent any incidence of an outbreak.
Vaccination is very effective. The vaccine uses strain 1a. Vaccinate the heifers before serving them.
Ensure the artificial insemination process is aseptic and proper.
Improve and maintain hygiene to prevent occurrence through ingestion. Properly dispose any aborted material that may contaminate the pastures.
Other species affected by brucellosis include:
|Species||Aetiology||Clinical signs / zoonotic importance|
|Sheep||Brucella orvis||Males will have painful epididymis and otitis or atrophy of the testis, which may also reduce the functionality of the organ|
|Goats||Brucella melitensis||Females abort. Causes severe brucellosis in man|
|Swine||Brucella swiss||Females will have either abortions or reduced litter. Males will have otitis of the testis. The bacteria localizes in the lymph nodes and muscles. Pork has very high levels of contamination of the bacteria. Contamination spreads during slaughter and it is impossible to identify it during meat inspection.|
Brucellosis in humans is also called ardulent fever or Malta fever. This is because brucellosis was first discovered in Malta, an island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is also called ardulent because it comes and goes.
All animal species are potential pathogens for man. People can get the disease via the following routes:
Consumption of raw / underpasteurized milk and milk products can lead to infection. Contaminated pork and other animal products is a viable route as well.
Usually a professional hazard for those dealing with sick animals and aborted material
When you accidentally touch your eyes with your fingers after touching the contaminated material, there is a likelihood that the bacteria will get into your system.
This disease is usually confused with malaria due to the similarity in their symptoms. For this reason, many people tend to assume it leading to advanced infection.
It takes up to two weeks to manifest its symptoms after entering the host. The observable symptoms include:
Seek medical attention at the nearest hospital. It may require prolonged periods of treatment and the patient may be required to take medication for several months.
Controlling this disease is most important. You can ensure the following:
Occurs in almost all animals in mild form and produces catastrophic consequences in humans. Tuberculosis simply means the formation of holes in the lungs. When the spaces break up and lodge in the capillaries, the situation can be fatal.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative microorganism that causes tuberculosis in cattle, sheep, and goats. All the species that affect the animals also affect humans. Mycobacteria are acid fast and resistant to a number of conditions.
The disease is inapparent in animals. It is a big public health concern in humans because the bacteria are present in the urine, saliva, faeces, and uterine discharges. Since it is shed in milk, people may not be aware of its presence since the animals do not show any symptoms.
Ingestion is the major route of transfer. Animals can also get it through coitus / during mating.
Urine and uterine discharges contaminate the pastures
The major route of transmission is through inhalation, especially in a dusty environment. Consumption of contaminated milk from inapparent animal carriers is a huge risk since people will assume that the milk is not contaminated. The disease produces exact symptoms in man as in animals.
The primary site of infection is in the lungs no matter what the route of transmission is. It produces pneumonia in the lungs with the following observable symptoms:
Endometritis – when the bacteria attacks the uterus (the uterus will produce pus)
Mastitis – when the bacteria attacks the mammary gland. The bacteria will be continuously shed in milk during milking.
Tentative diagnosis is based on the clinical signs.
For animals, post-mortem lesions from the carcasses can be useful for comprehensive diagnosis.
Conduct tuberculin test – commonly done in animals to check even the carrier state. Get an extract. An interdermal injection will elicit a series of reactions leading to swelling that will be typical for a positive case.
The most common test for humans is cultural isolation of the sputum to confirm the causative bacteria.
The drugs used for treatment are exactly the same for humans and animals.
Treating animals is discouraged as the drug residues will find their way into humans leading to resistance. The resistance to drugs will make it practically impossible to treat sick people.
Isoniazid drugs are commonly used for the treatment. They are very strong and must be used over prolonged periods to eliminate the bacteria from the system.
This is a very serious disease in humans even though it is not of much concern in domestic animals. However, rodents suffer severe disease when infected.
It is a bacterial zoonosis caused by Pasteurella pestis / Pasteurella yersinia. It is a gram negative rod-shaped coco-bacillus bacterium. These bacteria are quite prevalent in animals though they may not show the symptoms.
It is a widely distributed disease that cause acute and fatal infections in humans and rodents. It exhibits sporadic occurrences. In Kenya, it has been reported in Machakos, Nairobi, and Mombasa.
Humans usually get it from rodents. In animals, dogs and cats are the most affected and are the ones associated with infections in humans. People get bitten by the fleas from these animals and rodents and transmit the disease to them in the process.
Domestic animals usually manifest inapparent form of the disease (no observable symptoms). If they show any sign, it is very mild e.g. mild fever, low toxaemia, depression, and anorexia.
In rodents, deaths are common due to massive toxaemia.
Humans usually start to show signs one week after the bite. Observable symptoms include:
Suspect the disease from clinical signs
Confirm disease from bacterial isolation
Blood or sputum may be used if it has the pathogen
Bacterial zoonoses are hard to contain. They can wreak havoc and lead to massive losses of both income and lives.
Always seek professional advice when you suspect that your animal is suffering from any of these bacterial zoonoses.
Life is irreplaceable, seek medical attention if you spot any of the listed symptoms. It is always better to be safe than sorry.